September 26, 2017
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Diplomacy

India-Africa Relations: The Next Phase

Second Africa- India Forum Summit 2011: Africa-India Framework for Enhanced Cooperation

The Heads of State and Government and Heads of Delegations of Africa, representing the Continent, the African Union and the Regional Economic Communities (RECs), along with the Prime Minister of the Republic of India, noting with satisfaction the progress made in the implementation of the Africa-India Framework of Cooperation and its Plan of Action of March 2010, and agreeing to give additional substance to the partnership and to widen its scope, decide to adopt this Framework for Enhanced Cooperation between Africa and India. Africa and India agree to continue their cooperation in the areas enumerated below:

1. ECONOMIC COOPERATION

Africa and India reiterate the mutual desire to expand economic cooperation and trade and investment linkages between them. Recognizing that trade and investment between Africa and India have increased, both Africa and India agree to take further measures to continue to create a positive ambience for such enhanced flows. Africa has also effectively utilized concessional financial flows from India to Africa for supporting the development of its infrastructure, industry and services. Both sides agree to further expand cooperation and sharing of experiences to increase trade, investment and financial flows between India and Africa as they provide a common paradigm of cooperation in the true spirit of South-South engagement.

i. Agriculture

Africa and India reaffirm their commitment to cooperate for increasing agricultural output and achieving the Millennium Development Goal of halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger and malnutrition by 2015. They emphasize the importance of harnessing the latest scientific research for raising productivity and for the conservation of land and the environment in order to ensure food security for their people and to bring down the currently rising cost of food prices so as to make food affordable for all. In this respect, they agree to collaborate in the implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP).

ii. Trade, Industry and Investment

Africa and India recognize that enhanced trade and economic linkages would further contribute to sustainable growth and economic development in both Africa and India and welcome the contribution by India to build value addition and processing facilities in Africa.

Africa values private investment and financial flows on a concessional basis, which have been received from India and wishes to enhance their usage for building its infrastructure and enhancing the capacity of Africa to increase its exports. The value addition provided by Indian investment in Africa contributes to Africa's exports to third countries and to the development of intra-Africa trade. Both Africa and India will continue to work together to take these initiatives further.

Africa has also welcomed the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme for Africa's LDCs unilaterally announced by India at the time of the first India-Africa Forum Summit in 2008. It has significantly contributed to the ability of African countries to access the growing Indian market and contributed to the creation of complementarity in their export baskets. Africa and India will together endeavour to increase awareness and usage of this Scheme.

In the Action Plan of the Framework of Cooperation of IAFS-I, several initiatives were taken to build African capacities so that African human resources could join the process of industrialization and development of the services sector. Africa and India propose to continue to develop more such initiatives so that the growing young population of Africa finds suitable training and integration into the increasing economic opportunities in Africa. Support to the legal and regulatory environment for public private partnerships, particularly in infrastructure, operationalisation of bilateral agreements on investment promotion and protection between India and African Countries and support to the development of capacities in the Chambers of Commerce in Africa, would be among the new priorities to be pursued. African countries have found the India-Africa Project Partnership Conclaves to be useful vehicles for bringing Indian and African entrepreneurs and decision makers together. These would be continued.

iii. Small and Medium Enterprises

As Africa moves towards more rapid industrialization, there is a growing recognition that small, medium and micro enterprises offer significant avenues for supporting industrialization, generating employment and enhancing local capacities. Institutional support for the development of SMEs in Africa will be provided through the vocational training centres offered by India and the linkages between SMEs on both sides through the Conclaves and other activities by Chambers of Commerce and Industry. Africa and India will continue to work together on such initiatives, particularly to support the creation of entrepreneurship development and business incubators in Africa. It is the common endeavour of both that in the capacity building initiatives to be undertaken in the future, support to the private sector would be an integral part of the new efforts.

iv. Finance

One of the salient features of the first Africa- India Forum Summit and its Action Plan was the commitment by India for new financial flows to assist African countries in the true spirit of South-South Cooperation. Besides the grants for establishing capacity building institutions in Africa, there was an important commitment for concessional lines of credit to support the economic development of African countries and for regional integration. These have been augmented by significant private sector flows through FDI into Africa. Both Africa and India will work together to enhance the efficacy and spread of these financial flows so that the common objectives are fully met.

India remains committed to supporting Africa with concessional lines of credit and suitable grants for mutually beneficial projects. Greater efforts will be made to utilize these flows for regional integration projects. There would be an increasing focus to enhance engagement between African and Indian financial institutions and an encouragement for closer relationship between commercial banks in Africa and India. Encouragement will be provided to the opening of branches of Indian banks in Africa and African banks in India to participate in the growing matrix of financial flows between Africa and India.

v. Regional Integration

Africa and India reiterate the importance of the Regional Economic Communities in Africa and their contribution to economic integration within themselves and in Africa. India has an important engagement with the Regional Economic Communities of Africa as part of its multi-tiered cooperation. Both Africa and India recall the first ever meeting of India with the African RECs held in November 2010. In recognition of this, both Africa and India agree to build capacities for effectively carrying out the implementation of the integration agenda among the Regional Economic Communities, including in providing financial support to regional integration projects and capacity building programmes among the RECs.

2. POLITICAL COOPERATION

Africa and India are conscious of the important role they play in the world and agree to intensify political cooperation. Their common endeavour will be to continue to strive for peace and security as such harmonious policies will allow the fructification of the enhanced agenda of cooperation currently agreed upon. In this respect, the African Union would consider, as soon as possible, the establishment of an office in New Delhi, India, as recognition of the close partnership that exists between Africa and India.

i. Peace and Security

Peace and Security are essential to progress and sustainable development, which are common goals for Africa and India. Both Africa and India will continue their close cooperation, including through regular consultations at the United Nations, at the African Union and in New Delhi. Both will work towards an early operationalisation of the African Standby Force through special training programmes.

ii. Civil Society and Governance

Africa and India recognize the importance of democratic governance and of promoting and protecting human rights. They also recognize the importance of decentralization, the promotion of local government and the need to strengthen the institutions of parliamentary democracy and elections. They agree to enhance cooperation by sharing of experiences and capacity building, where necessary, among Election Commissions, the institutions of parliamentary democracy and media organizations. They also agree to cooperate in the strengthening of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights through sharing of best practices and capacity building of the court. Africa and India will also encourage interaction of legal experts/lawyers through the Bar Associations. They will also exchange experiences on best practices, research and human resources within the framework of decentralization and local governance alongside the Conference of Ministers of Public Services and Administration and ECOSOCC.

3. COOPERATION IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

The development of science & technology and research capacities is an integral part of the process of development. Africa greatly values the progress made by India in its scientific and technological development and believes that it can engage with India in these sectors, especially knowledge and technology transfer for mutual benefit. Africa and India are convinced that harnessing the knowledge economy can make hunger and want things of the past. They agree to intensify cooperation in the following areas:

i. Science and Technology

Africa welcomes the establishment of the Special Agricultural Scholarship Scheme and the Special Science & Technology Fellowship Scheme (CV Raman Fellowships) under the provisions of IAFS-I and looks forward to continuing this engagement to build scientific and technological human resource in Africa, including through the Pan-African University for which Africa has requested India, to be the Lead Partner in the Life and Earth Sciences segment. Management of natural disasters, combating desertification and support to scientific institutions in Africa would continue. Initiatives to enhance linkages between scientific institutions in Africa and India would be undertaken and training on health related issues like HIV, TB and Malaria will be explored. The African-Indian Science and Technology Conference will also be organised.

ii. Information and Communication Technology

Africa has immense regard and admiration for the strides made by India in the development of its information and communications technology. The contribution of the Government of India towards developing the infrastructure and the resourcefulness of the private sector and India's scientific and technological manpower in allowing this sector to make important contributions to the growth of GDP in India, are well recognized in Africa. Africa and India recognize the importance of an early introduction of information and communication technologies as key enablers of capacity building for youth and for poverty eradication and accelerated growth.

Africa recognizes the important contribution made by the Pan-African E-Network Project to African countries in achieving these objectives and both Africa and India commit themselves to taking the lessons of the implementation and efficacy of the Pan-African E-Network Project further, so that the digital divide can be bridged and the socio-economic benefits of ICT can be harnessed for their mutual objectives.

4. COOPERATION IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND CAPACITY BUILDING

Africa and India both recognize the importance of capacity building, particularly as both are young societies and want to translate the demographic dividend into effective growth. The successful utilization of the ITEC programme offered by India has been a manifestation of the South-South Cooperation that effectively exists between Africa and India. The enhancement of scholarships and training positions under the ITEC programme, as well as the creation of new courses for training of African nationals in specified areas, all emerge from the Action Plan of the Framework of Cooperation of IAFS-I. Africa and India would endeavour to continue to take these important initiatives forward together. India is committed to their enhancement.

Africa has been appreciative of the 21 new capacity building institutions which India is in the process of establishing in Africa in diverse sectors. These will greatly assist African human resource development for the development of industries and the service sector to contribute to growth. Both India and Africa will continue to strive to have an early conclusion of the implementation of the process to establish these new institutions in close collaboration between the Indian implementing agencies, the host governments and the African Union. They will make efforts to have effective governance strategies and business plans for these institutions to make them sustainable. India remains committed to further enhancement of this approach of building African capacities in Africa.

Pan-Africa E-Network Project:

Africa and India have both recognized the successful implementation of this visionary project. It has added capacity and value in the critical fields of education and health care in African countries. Its fulsome utilization will remain one of the major objectives of the Framework of Enhanced Cooperation and efforts will be made to enhance its utilization, widen its scope and increase its success rate so that the true objectives of assisting Africa in meeting its millennium development goals on education and health could be achieved.

Africa and India will continue to work together to increase exchanges in education, health, water and sanitation, culture and sports and poverty eradication through innovative new programmes as well as commit themselves to effective implementation of programmes agreed upon earlier in the Action Plan for the Framework of Cooperation. Special care would be taken to encourage greater investment in some of these sectors as well as to increase financial flows from the government sector to achieve these objectives. India is committed to continue with increasing number of scholarships both for under-graduate and postgraduate studies including in specialized areas like agriculture, science & technology and other priorities listed in this Framework for Enhanced Cooperation.

5. COOPERATION IN HEALTH, CULTURE AND SPORTS
a) Health

In the area of health, Africa and India reiterate their conviction that the promotion of health is critical in the development of the human capital necessary to drive socio-economic growth. They look forward to the outputs and recommendations of the India-Africa workshop on Traditional medicine to be held in India and undertake to implement the outcome. They reaffirm their commitment to enhance collaboration in the application of advancement in science, technology, research and development to training in the area of HIV, TB and Malaria; the provision of basic medical services in rural areas, , the deployment of Telecoms and ICTs in support of tele-medicine and e-health applications; strengthening of public-private sector collaboration in the areas of pharmaceutical and procurement in Africa and India in the framework of the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Plan for Africa, the fight against counterfeit medicines.

They also undertake to pursue dialogue on intellectual property rights and access to medicines; research and development in traditional medicine and practices in Africa and India; sharing of experiences, specialized expertise and best practices in healthcare systems development and community health programmes; support for Africa's Campaign on Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); and training and continuing education for health professionals.

b) Culture

Noting the role that Culture can play in the development and integration of their societies, specifically through the use of creative and cultural industries, Africa and India agree to collaborate in the development of cultural policies and will undertake the following:

- Exchange of experiences in the area of the development of creative industries and cultural goods so as to increase the contribution of culture to the development of their nations and collaborate in the organization of international training for trainers in the field of cultural goods protection.

c) Sports

Considering the paramount role that sports can play in the development and integration of their societies, specifically through the use of sports as a tool for development and desirous to advocate for well-designed sports and play programmes, as powerful tools for fostering health, child and individual development, teaching positive values and life skills, strengthening education and improving health and well being; Africa and India agree to collaborate in the development of sports policies; exchange of experiences in the area of the development of sports and the training of trainers in the field of qualified sports personnel.

6. COOPERATION IN TOURISM

Africa and India are deeply conscious of their age-old ties at the people to people level. As neighbours across the Indian Ocean, Africa and India are in favour of providing greater connectivity between the countries of Africa and India and to increase the level of popular exchanges. Tourism and connectivity remain important areas which could provide economic benefits and also contribute to enhance mutual understanding.

Africa and India therefore, agree to strengthen partnership with the private sector especially, travel agencies, hotels, airlines and other tourism related establishments, as well as the media, and take other necessary steps that will enable harmonization of policies and norms in tourism with a view to advancing tourism development between the two sides.

7. COOPERATION IN INFRASTRUCTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

Africa and India, fully cognizant of the immense requirements of dealing with issues pertaining to infrastructure, energy and environment, reiterate their commitment to focus on these areas, particularly in the context of sustainable development as important areas of cooperation. They dedicate themselves to fulfilling programmes established under the Action Plan and to look at enhanced engagement in areas such as the continental NEPAD-Identified infrastructure projects and PIDA, particularly with regard to increasing financial flows to these sectors. This will provide a better environment for greater investment in these sectors.

They agree to work closely together in the interest of developing countries to set an appropriate international agenda to benefit the development of both Africa and India. Efforts will be made to give more attention to new areas like new and renewable energies through training programmes and capacity building as well as in sustainable environmental practices.

The concessional credit flows from India would be channelled in a wider manner into infrastructure projects. They agree to cooperate in the area of environment, including desertification and support for Africa's Great Green Wall project.

8. COOPERATION IN THE AREA OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATIONS

The successful implementation of the decisions of the first Africa-India Forum Summit emanating from the Framework Cooperation and its Action Plan have brought qualitative change into the existing relationship between Africa and India. The depth and diversity of the relationship has significantly altered and the traditional engagement has successfully moved towards a modern functional partnership. However, there remains an uneven recognition of this, particularly in the public mind which requires to be addressed.

At the same time, Africa needs greater opportunities to bring its own media and communications to an independent growth path in recognition of its multi-cultural and multi-ethnic identities.

Africa and India therefore agree to promote a larger number of visits between African and Indian editors and journalists, academicians, scholars and civil society representatives, so that closer interaction envisaged in this Framework for Enhanced Cooperation can be suitably disseminated. In this respect, consideration will be given to the training of African media personnel with a view to capacity building and improving their skills.

Without prejudice to India's ongoing and future programmes at the bilateral, REC and other levels, it is agreed to jointly revise, within a period of six months, the Joint Plan of Action to fully reflect the Africa-India Framework for Enhanced Cooperation. This Joint Plan of Action will also incorporate a follow-up mechanism which will ensure the effective implementation of programmes and activities agreed in the Plan.

Done at Addis Ababa, this 25th day of May 2011
(Source : African Union)